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I combine quantitative and qualitative methods from social and natural sciences in inter- and transdisciplinary collaborations

Global environmental change will cause significant changes in ecosystems and the benefits they provide. I’m interested in assessing these potential impacts, and understanding the consequences of the impacts for society.

I work with public, private and societal stakeholders to understand interactions between the environment and society, anticipate future change, and support the development of appropriate strategies and policies to cope with these challenges.


My interests are wide and varied but can mostly be grouped under three themes:

  1. Global change impacts and adaptation: Understanding vulnerability under global change and identifying nature-based solutions

  2. Foresight: Developing scenarios techniques to assess potential global change impacts on ecosystems and society and explore sustainable development pathways. 

  3. Ecosystem Services: Understanding how people and society depend on and value benefits derived from nature and the environment. 


An full overview of my academic journal publications, book chapters, and selected other publications.


An overview of selected past and current research projects and initiatives where I made substantial contributions.


An overview of archived datasets, including spatial stratification datasets and land use visualisations.


I’ve published over 90 research papers with over 300 co-authors on a wide range of topics. These papers have been cited over 7000 times, and I have an h-index of 34 (in Scopus).


Journal publications

In press


  • Metzger M.J., Keller R., Lo V., Filyuskina A., Komossa F., López-Rodríguez M.D., Valfri C., De Vries Lentsch A. (2023) ‘Bonkers but good!’ – Using illustration-based interview methods to understand land management and conservation visions. Landscape and Urban Planning 239: 104862.

  • Peskett L., Metzger M.J., Blackstock K. (2023) Regional scale integrated land use planning to meet multiple objectives: Good in theory but challenging in practice. Environmental Science & Policy 147: 292-304.

  • Sharma K., Walters G., Metzger M.J., Ghazoul J. (2023) Glocal woodlands – The rescaling of forest governance in Scotland. Land Use Policy 126: 106524

  • Sharma K., Hollingdale J., Walters G., Metzger M.J., Ghazoul J. (2023) In danger of co-option: Examining how austerity and central control shape community woodlands in Scotland. Geoforum, 142: 103771

  • Melnick R.L., Jarvis L., Hendley P., Garcia-Alonso M., Metzger M.J., Ramankutty N., Teem J.L., Roberts A. (2023) GEnZ explorer: a tool for visualizing agroclimate to inform research and regulatory risk assessment. Transgenic Research

  • Adams K.J, , Macleod C.A.J., Metzger M.J., Melville N., Helliwell R.C., Jim Pritchard J., Glendell M. (2023) Developing a Bayesian network model for understanding river catchment resilience under future change scenarios​. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 27: 2205–2225


  • Raymond C.M., Cebrián-Piqueras M.A., Andersson E., Andrade R., Arroyo Schnell A., Battioni Romanelli B., Filyushkina A., Goodson D.J., Horcea-Milcu A., Johnson D.N., Keller R., Kuiper J.J, Lo V., López-Rodríguez M.D., March H., Metzger M., Oteros-Rozas E., Salcido E., Sellberg M., Stewart W., Ruiz-Mallén I., Plieninger T., Van Riper C.J., Verburg P.H., Wiedermann M.M. (2022) Inclusive conservation and the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework: Tensions and prospects. One Earth 5: 252-264.

  • Filyushkina A., Komossa F., Metzger M.J., Verburg, P.H. (2022) Multifunctionality of a peri-urban landscape: exploring the diversity of residents’ perceptions and preferences. Ecosystems and People 18: 583-597.

  • Johnson D, Van Riper C, Stewart W, Metzger M, Oteros-Rozas E, Ruiz-Malln I (2022) Elucidating social-ecological perceptions of a protected area system in Interior Alaska: A fuzzy cognitive mapping approach. Ecology & Society 27: article 34.

  • Lo V.B., López-Rodríguez M.D., Metzger M.J., Oteros-Rozas E., Cebrián Piqueres M. A., Ruiz-Mallén I., March H., Raymond C.M. (2022)  How stable are visions for protected area management? Stakeholder perspectives before and during a pandemic. People and Nature 4: 445-461.

  • Adams K.J., Metzger M.J, Macleod C.J.A, Helliwell R.C., Pohle I. (2022) Understanding knowledge needs for Scotland to become a resilient Hydro Nation: Water stakeholder perspectives. Environmental Science and Policy 136: 157-166.


  • Logan M.J., Metzger M.J., Hollingdale J. (2021) Contributions of Scottish community woodlands to local wellbeing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scottish Geographical Journal 137: 113-130.

  • Zorrilla Miras P., López Moya E., Metzger M.J., Patenaude G., Sitoe A., Mahamane M., Lisboa S.N., Paterson J., López-Gunn E. (2021) Understanding complex relationships between human well-being and land use change in Mozambique using a multi-scale participatory scenario planning process. Sustainability 13: 23.

  • Meynell P.-J., Metzger M., Stuart N. (2021) Identifying Ecosystem Services for a Framework of Ecological Importance for Rivers in South East Asia. Water 13:1602.

  • Angelstam P., Fedoriak M., Cruz F., Muñoz-Rojas J., Yamelynets T., Manton M., Washbourne C.-L., Dobrynin D., Izakovičova Z., Jansson N., Jaroszewicz B., Kanka R., Kavtarishvili M., Kopperoinen L., Lazdinis M., Metzger M.J., Özüt D., Pavloska Gjorgjieska D., Sijtsma F.J., Stryamets N., Tolunay A., Turkoglu T., Van der Moolen B., Zagidullina A., Zhuk A. (2021) Meeting places and social capital supporting rural landscape stewardship: A Pan-European horizon scanning. Environment and Society 26:11.

  • Cooper D.M., Dugmore A.J., Kitchener A.C., Metzger M.J., Trabucco A. (2021) A kingdom in decline: Holocene rang contraction of the lion (Panthera leo) modelled with global environmental stratification PeerJ 9: e10504.

  • Angelstam P, Manto M, Yamelynets, T, Fedoriak M, Albulescu A, Bravo F, Cruz F, Jaroszewicz B, Kavtarishvili M, Muñoz-rojas J, Sijtsma F, Washbourne C, Agnoletti M, Dobrynin D, Izakovicova Z, Jansson N, Kanka R, Kopperoinen L, Lazdinis M, Metzger M, Van Der Moolen B, Özut D, Gjorgieska DP, Stryamets N, Tolunay A, Turkoglu T, Zagidullina A (2020) Maintaining natural and traditional cultural green infrastructures across Europe: learning from historic and current landscape transformations. Landscape ecology 36: 637-663. 


  • Undorf S., Tett S.F.B., Hagg J., Metzger M.J., Wilson C., Edmond G., Jacques-Turner M., Forrest S., Shoote M. (2020) Understanding interdependent climate change risks using a serious game. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101: E1279-E1300.

  • Undorf S., Allen K., Hagg J., Li S., Lott F.C., Metzger M.J., Sparrow S.N., Tett S. (2020) Learning from the 2018 heatwave in the context of climate change: Are high-temperature extremes important for adaptation in Scotland? Environmental Research Letters 15: 3.

  • Young C., Bellamy C., Burton V., Griffiths G., Metzger M.J., Neumann J., Porter J., Millington J.D.A. (2020) UK Landscape Ecology: Trends and perspectives from the first 25 Years of ialeUK.  Landscape Ecology 35: 11-22.


  • Sing L., Metzger M.J., Ray D. (2019) Do public attitudes towards forestry align with government policy objectives? Insights from a case study in north west Scotland.  Scottish Forestry 73-3: 43-52. 

  • Rounsevell M.D.A, Metzger M.J., Walz A. (2019) Operationalising ecosystem services in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 19:2143-2149. 

  • Metzger M.J., Dick J., Gardner A., Bellamy C., Blackstock K., Brown C., Chisholm R., Cochrane P., Drewitt J., Gimona A., Hester A., Mathieson S., Nijnik M., McVittie A., Petr M., Smith R., Smith M. (2019) Knowledge sharing, problem solving and professional development in a Scottish Ecosystem Services Community of Practice. Regional Environmental Change 19: 2275-2286. 

  • Liski A.H., Ambros P., Metzger M.J., Nicholas K.A., Wilson A.M.W., Krause T. (2019) Governance and stakeholder perspectives of managed re-alignment: adapting to sea level rise in the Inner Forth estuary, Scotland Regional Environmental Change 19: 2231-2243. 

  • Liski A.H., Koetse M.J., Metzger M.J. (2019) Addressing awareness gaps in environmental valuation: choice experiments with citizens in the Inner Forth, Scotland. Regional Environmental Change 19: 2217-2229. 

  • Patenaude G., Lautenbach S., Paterson J.S., Locatelli T.,Dormann C.F., Metzger M.J., Walz A. (2019) Breaking the Ecosystem Services glass ceiling: operationalising for impact. Regional Environmental Change 19:2261-2274. 

  • Burton V., Metzger M.J., Brown, C., Moseley D. (2019) Green Gold to Wild Woodlands; understanding stakeholder visions for woodland expansion in Scotland  Landscape Ecology 34: 1693-1713. 

  • Schoonover H.A., Grêt-Regamey A., Metzger M.J., Ruiz-Frau A., Santos-Reis M, Scholte S.S.K., Walz A, Nicholas K.A. (2019) Creating space, aligning motivations, and building trust: A framework for stakeholder engagement based on experience in 12 ecosystem services case studies. Ecology and Society 24:11. 

  • Dan-Jumbo N.G., Metzger M.J. (2019) Relative Effect of Location Alternatives on Urban Hydrology. The Case of Greater Port-Harcourt Watershed, Niger Delta  Hydrology 6:82

  • Ainscough J., de Vries Lentsch A., Metzger M., Rounsevell M., Schröter M., Delbaere B., de Groot R., Staes J. (2019) Navigating pluralism: Understanding perceptions of the ecosystem services Concept Ecosystem Services 36: 100892.

  • Price M.F., Arnesen T., Gloersen E., Metzger M.J. . (2019) Mapping Mountain Areas: Learning from Global, European and Norwegian perspectives. Journal of Mountain Science 16: 1-15.

  • Thomas H.J.D., Paterson J.S., Metzger M.J. , Sing L. (2019) An evaluation of Scottish woodland grant schemes using site suitability modelling. Land Use Policy 80: 309-317. 


  • Dan-Jumbo N.G., Metzger M.J., Clark A.P. (2018) Urban Land-Use Dynamics in the Niger Delta: The Case of Greater Port Harcourt Watershed  Urban Science 2: 108.

  • Burton V., Moseley D., Brown, C., Metzger M.J., Bellamy P. (2018) Reviewing the evidence base for the effects of woodland expansion on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the United Kingdom  Forest Ecology and Management 430: 366-379.

  • Claret C., Metzger M.J., Kettunen M., Ten Brink P. (2018) Understanding the integration of ecosystem services and natural capital in Scottish policy  Environmental Science and Policy 88: 32-38. 

  • Wawrzyczek J., Lindsay R, Metzger M.J., Quétier F. (2018) The Ecosystem Approach in ecological impact assessment: lessons learned from wind farm developments on peatland in Scotland Environmental Impact Assessment Review 75: 157-165. 

  • Metzger M.J., Lindner M., Pedroli B. (2018) Towards a roadmap for sustainable land use in Europe Regional Environmental Change 18: 707-713. 

  • Valluri-Nitsch C., Metzger M.J., McMorran R., Price M.F. (2018) My land? Your land? Scotland?—understanding sectoral similarities and differences in Scottish land use visions. Regional Environmental Change 18: 808-816. 

  • Perez-Soba M., Paterson J., Metzger M.J., Gramberger M., Houtkamp J., Jensen A., Murray-Rust D., Verkerk P.J. (2018) Sketching sustainable land use in Europe by 2040: a multi-stakeholder participatory approach to elicit crosssectoral visions. Regional Environmental Change 18: 775-787. 

  • Metzger M.J., Murray-Rust D., Houtkamp J., Jensen A., Riviere I.L., Paterson J., Perez-Soba M., Valluri-Nitsch C. (2018) How do Europeans want to live in 2040 ? Citizen visions and their consequences for European land use. Regional Environmental Change 18: 789-802. 

  • Levers C., Müller D., Erb K., Haberl H., Jepsen M.R., Metzger M.J., Meyfroidt P., Plieninger T., Plutzar C., Stürck J., Verburg P.H., Verkerk P.J., Kuemmerle T. (2018) Archetypical patterns and trajectories of land systems in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 18: 715-732. 

  • Brown C., Holzhauer S., Metzger M.J., Paterson J.S., Rounsevell M. (2018) Land managers' behaviours modulate pathways to visions of future land systems. Regional Environmental Change 18: 831-845. 

  • Sing L., Metzger M.J., Paterson J.S., Ray D. (2018) A review of the effects of forest management intensity on ecosystem services for northern European temperate forests with a focus on the UK. Forestry 91: 151-164.

  • Zorrilla-Miras P., Mahamane M., Metzger M.J., Baumert S., Vollmer F., Luz A.C., Woollen E., Sitoe A.A., Patenaude G., Nhantumbo I., Ryan C.M., Paterson J., Matediane M.J., Ribeiro N.S., Grundy I.M. (2018) Environmental conservation and social benefits of charcoal production in Mozambique  Ecological Economics 144: 100-111. 


  • Soteriades A., Murray-Rust D., Trabucco A., Metzger M.J. (2017) Understanding global climate change scenarios through bioclimate stratification. Environmental Research Letters 12: 8. 

  • Mahamane M., Zorilla-Mirras P., Verweij P., Sitoe A., Ryan C., Patenaude G., Grundy I., Metzger M.J., Ribeiro N., Baumert S., Vollmer F. (2017) Understanding land use, land cover and woodland-based ecosystem services change, Mabalane, Mozambique Energy and Environment Research 7: 1. 

  • Villoslada M., Bunce R.G.H., Sepp K., Jongman R.H.G., Metzger M.J., Kull T., Raet J., Kuusemets V., Kull A., Leito A. (2017) A framework for habitat monitoring and climate change modelling: construction and validation of the Environmental Stratification of Estonia. Regional Environmental Change 17: 335-349 

  • Hernes M.I., Metzger M.J. (2017) Understanding local community’s values, worldviews and perceptions in the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve, Scotland. Journal of Environmental Management 186: 12-23. 

  • Araya-Munoz D., Metzger, M.J., Stuart N., Wilson A.M.W., Carvajal, D.A (2017) A spatial fuzzy logic approach to urban multi-hazard impact assessment in Concepción, Chile. Science of the Total Environment 576: 508-519. 


  • Schmidt K., Walz A., Jones I., Metzger M.J. (2016) The Sociocultural Value of Upland Regions in the Vicinity of Cities in Comparison With Urban Green Spaces.  Mountain Research and Development 36: 465-474. 

  • Araya-Munoz D., Metzger M.J., Stuart N., Wilson A.M.W., Alvarez L. (2016) Assessing urban adaptive capacity to climate change. Journal of Environmental Management 183: 314-324.

  • Guerra G.A., Metzger M.J. , Maes J., Pinto-Correia, T. (2016) Policy impacts on regulating ecosystem services: looking at the implications of 60 years of landscape change on soil erosion prevention in a Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system. Landscape Ecology 31: 271-290. 

  • Holman I.P., Harrison P.A., Metzger M.J. (2016) Cross-sectoral impacts of climate and socio-economic change in Scotland - implications for adaptation policy. Regional Environmental Change 16: 97-109. 

  • Guerra G.A., Maes J., Geijzendorffer I.R., Metzger M.J. , (2016) An assessment of soil erosion prevention by vegetation in Mediterranean Europe: Current trends of ecosystem service provision. Ecological Indicators 60: 213-222. 


  • Thomas H.J.D., Paterson J.S., Metzger M.J., Sing L. (2015) Towards a research agenda for woodland expansion in Scotland.  Forest Ecology and Management 349: 149-161. 

  • Leito A., Bunce R.G.H, Külvik M., Ojaste I., Raet J., Villoslada M., Leivits M., Kull A., Kuusemets V., Kull T., Metzger M.J, Sepp K. (2015) The potential impacts of changes in ecological networks, land use and climate on the Eurasian crane population in Estonia. Landscape Ecology 30: 887-904 

  • Vogiatzakis, I., Stirpe M.T., Rickebusch S., Metzger M.J., Xu G., Rounsevell MDA, Bommarco R., Potts S. (2015) Rapid assessment of historic, current and future habitat quality for biodiversity around UK Natura 2000 sites. Environmental Conservation 42: 31-40. 

  • Gramberger M., Zellmer K., Kok K., Metzger M.J. (2015) Stakeholder integrated research (STIR): a new approach tested in climate change adaptation research. Climatic Change 128: 201-214. 


  • Zomer R.J., Trabucco A., Wang M., Lang R., Chen H., Metzger M.J., Smajgl A., Beckschäfer P., Xu J. (2014) Environmental stratification to model climate change impacts on biodiversity and rubber production in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Biological Conservation 170: 264-273. 

  • Guerra C., Pinto Correia M.T., Metzger M.J. (2014). Mapping soil erosion prevention using an ecosystem service modelling framework for integrated land management and policy.  Ecosystems 17: 264-273.

  • Xu G., Kang M., Metzger, M., Jiang Y. (2014). Vulnerability of the Human-Environment System in Arid Regions: The Case of Xilingol Grassland in Northern China.  Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 23: 1773-1785.

  • Zomer R.J., Trabucco A., Metzger M.J., Wang M., Oli K.P., Xu J. (2014) Projected Climate Change Impacts on Spatial Distribution of Bioclimatic Zones and Ecoregions within the Kailash Sacred Landscape of China, India, Nepal. Climatic Change 125: 445-460. 


  • Guerra C., Metzger M.J., Honrado J., Alonso J. (2013). A spatially explicit method for a priori estimation of field survey effort in environmental observation networks. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 27: 2077-2098. 

  • Acosta L., Klein R.J.T., Reitsma P., Metzger M.J., Rounsevell M.D.A., Leemans R., Schröter D. (2013). A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe. Global environmental change 23: 1211–1224. 

  • Harrison P.A., Holman I.P., Cojocaru G., Kok K., Kotnogianni A., Metzger M.J. , Gramberger M. (2013) Combining qualitative and quantitative understanding for exploring cross-sectoral climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 13: 761-780. 

  • Metzger M.J., Brus D.J., Bunce R.G.H, Carey P.D., Gonçalves J., Honrado J.P., Jongman R.H.G, Trabucco A., Zomer R. (2013). Environmental stratifications as the basis for national, European and global ecological monitoring.  Ecological Indicators 33: 26-35. 

  • Ortega M., Guerra C., Honrado J.P., Metzger M.J., Bunce R.G.H., Jongman R.H.G. (2013). Surveillance of habitats and plant diversity indicators across a regional gradient in the Iberian Peninsula. Ecological Indicators 33: 36-44. 

  • Metzger M.J., Bunce R.G.H, Jongman R.H.G, Sayre R., Trabucco A., Zomer R. (2013). A high-resolution bioclimate map of the world: a unifying framework for global biodiversity research and monitoring. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22: 630-638. 


  • Graef F., Roembke J., Binimelis R., Myhr A.I., Hilbeck A., Breckling B., Dalgaard T., Stachow U., Catacora G.V., Bøhn T., Quist D., Darvas B., Dudel G., Oehen B., Meyer H., Henle K., Wynne B., Metzger M., Knäbe S., Settele J., Székács A., Wurbs A., Bernard J., Murphy-Bokern D., Buiatti M., Giovannetti M., Debeljak M., Andersen E., Paetz A., Dzeroski S., Tappeser B., van Gestel C.A.M., Wosniok W., Séralini G.-E., Aslaksen I., Pesch R., Maly S., Werner A. (2012) A framework for a European network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO) BioRisk 7: 73-97. 

  • Rounsevell M.D.A., Pedroli B., Erb K.-H., Gramberger G., Gravsholt Busck A., Haberl H., Kristensen S., Kuemmerle T., Lavorel S., Lindner M., Lotze-Campen H., Metzger M.J. , Murray-Rust D., Popp A., Pérez-Soba M., Reenberg A., Vadineanu A., Verburg P.H., Wolfslehner B. (2012) Challenges for land system science. Land Use Policy 29: 899-910. 

  • Eupen, M. van, Metzger M.J. , Pérez-Soba M., Verburg P.H., Doorn, A. van, Bunce R.G.H. (2012) A Rural Typology for Strategic European Policies. Land Use Policy 29: 473-482. 

  • Ortega M., Metzger M.J., Bunce R.G.H., Wrbka T., Allard A., Jongman R.H.G., Elena-Rosselló R. (2012) The potential for integration of environmental data from regional stratifications into a European monitoring framework. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 55: 39-57.





  • Smit H.J., Metzger M.J., Ewert F. (2008) Spatial distribution of grassland productivity and land use in Europe. Agricultural Systems 98: 208-219. 

  • Metzger M.J., Schröter D., Leemans R., Cramer, W. (2008) A spatially explicit and quantitative vulnerability assessment of environmental change in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 8: 91-107. 

  • Metzger M.J., Bunce R.G.H., Leemans R. , Viner D. (2008) Projected environmental shifts under climate change: European trends and regional impacts. Environmental Conservation 35: 64-75.

  • Bunce R.G.H., Metzger M.J., Jongman R.H.G., Brandt J., De Blust G., Elena-Rossello R., Groom G.B., Halada L., Hofer G., Howard D.C., Kovar P., Mücher C.A., Padoa-Schioppa E., Palinckx D., Palo A., Perez-Soba M., Ramos I.L., Roche P., Skånes H., Wrbka T. (2008) A standardized procedure for surveillance and monitoring of European habitats and provision of spatial data. Landscape Ecology 23: 11-25. 


  • Verboom J., Alkemade L.R.M., Klijn J., Metzger M.J., Reijnen R. (2007) Combining biodiversity modeling with political and economic development scenarios for 25 EU countries. Ecological Economics 62: 267-276. 


  • Metzger M.J. & Schröter D. (2006) Towards a spatially explicit and quantitative vulnerability assessment of environmental change in Europe.  Regional Environmental Change 6: 201-216.

  • Jongman R.H.G., Bunce R.G.H., Metzger M.J., Mücher C.A. Howard D.C., Mateus V.L. (2006) Objectives and applications of a statistical environmental stratification of Europe. Landscape Ecology 21: 409-419. 

  • Metzger M.J., Rounsevell M.D.A., Acosta-Michlik L., Leemans R., Schröter D. (2006) The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change.  Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 114: 69-85.

  • Rounsevell M.D.A., Reginster I., Araújo M.B., Carter T.R., Dendoncker N., Ewert F., House J.I., Kankaanpää S., Leemans R., Metzger M.J., Schmit C., Smith P., Tuck G. (2006) A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 114: 57-68. 


  • Schröter D., Cramer W., Leemans R., Prentice I.C., Araújo M.B., Arnell N.W., Bondeau A., Bugmann H., Carter T.R., Garcia C.A., de la Vega-Leinert A.C., Erhard M., Ewert F., Glendining M., House J.I., Kankaanpää S., Klein R.J.T., Lavorel S., Lindner M., Metzger M.J., Meyer J., Mitchell T.D., Reginster I., Rounsevell M., Sabaté S., Sitch S., Smith B., Smith J., Smith P., Sykes M.T., Thonicke K., Thuiller W., Tuck G., Zaehle S., Zierl B. (2005) Ecosystem Service Supply and Human Vulnerability to Global Change in Europe.  Science 310: 1333-1337.

  • Metzger M.J., Bunce R.G.H, Jongman R.H.G, Mücher C.A., Watkins J.W. (2005). A climatic stratification of the environment of Europe.  Global Ecology and Biogeography 14: 549-563.

  • Ewert F., Rounsevell M.D.A., Reginster I., Metzger M.J., Leemans R. (2005) Future scenarios of European agricultural land use. I: Estimating changes in crop productivity.  Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 107: 101-116.

  • Metzger M.J., Leemans R., Schröter D.S. (2005) A multidisciplinary multi-scale framework for assessing vulnerability to global change.  International Journal of Applied Geo-information and Earth Observation 7: 253-267.

Book chapters

  • Jongman R.H.G., Skidmore A.K., Mücher C.A., Bunce R.G.H., Metzger M.J. (2016) Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Observations: Why, Where, What and How? In: The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks. Ed. Walters M. and Scholes R.J., Springer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 19-38 pdf

  • contributing author to Kovats R.S., Valentini R., Bouwer LM., Georgopoulou E., Jacob D., Martin E., Rounsevell M., Soussana J.-F. (2014) Europe. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Barros, V.R., C.B. Field, D.J. Dokken, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1267-1326. pdf

  • Hazeu G.W., Elbersen B., Andersen E., Baruth B., van Diepen K., Metzger M.J. (2010) A biophysical typology in agri-environmental modelling. In: F Brouwer, MK van Ittersum (eds) Environmental and agricultural modeling: Integrated approaches for policy impact assessment. Springer Academic Publishers, Berlin, pp 159-187 pdf

  • Veen P., Metzger M.J. (2009) Lowland grasslands and climate in Central Europe. In: P. Veen, R. Jefferson, J. de Smidt, J. van der Straaten (eds) Grasslands in Europe of high nature value. KNNV Publishing, Zeist, pp 42-51 

  • Jongman R., Bunce B., Metzger M.J. (2009) Classification of landscapes with particular reference to cultural landscapes. In: Cultural landscapes of Europe, fields of Demeter haunts of Pan. K. Krzywinski, M. O'Connel, Küster, H. (eds) Aschenbeck Media UG, Bremen, pp 23-34 

  • Ewert F., Rounsevell M., Reginster I, Metzger M.J. & Leemans R. (2006) Technology development and climate change as drivers of future agricultural land use. In: Agriculture and climate beyond 2015. Ed. Brouwer F. and McCarl B., Springer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 33 pdf

Selected other publications

  • Rounsevell M.D.A., Metzger M.J. (2018). OPERAs summary report -Five years of ecosystem science for policy and practice 2012-2017. Zenodo pdf

  • contributing author to the Intergornmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Guide on production and integration of assessments from and across all scales (chapter 2) . ipBES 2016. pdf

  • Pedroli B., Rounsevell M., Metzger M.J., Paterson, J., and the VOLANTE consortium (2015). The VOLANTE Roadmap towards sustainable land resource management in Europe. VOLANTE final project document, Alterra Wageningen UR, 24 pp. ISBN 978-94-6257-407-6. pdf

  • Pérez-Soba M., Paterson J., Metzger M.J. (2015). Visions of future land use in Europe: stakeholder visions for 2040. VOLANTE project report, Alterra Wageningen UR, 24 pp. ISBN 978-94-6257-406-9. pdf

  • Sayre R., Dangermond J., Frye, C., Vaughan, R., Aniello, P., Breyer, S., D. Cribbs, D. Hopkins, R. Nauman, W. Derrenbacher, D. Wright, C. Brown, C. Convis, J. Smith, L. Benson, D. Paco VanSistine, H. Warner, J. Cress, J. Danielson, S. Hamann, T. Cecere, A. Reddy, D. Burton, A. Grosse, D. True, M. Metzger , J. Hartmann, N. Moosdorf, H. Dürr, M. Paganini, P. DeFourny, O. Arino, S. Maynard, M. Anderson, P. Comer. (2014) A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units — An Ecophysiographic Stratification Approach. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.  pdf

  • Zomer, R.J., Trabucco, A., Metzger, M., Oli, K.P. (2013). Environmental Stratification of Kailash Sacred Landscape and Projected Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystems and Productivity. ICIMOD Working Paper 2013/1. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal. pdf

  • Metzger, M.J. , Brus, D.J., Ortega, M. (2012). Sampling efficiency of national, EU and global stratifications. Alterra report 2279, Alterra, Wageningen.  pdf

  • Metzger, M.J. , Shkaruba, A.D., Jongman, R.H.G., and Bunce R.G.H. (2012). Descriptions of the European Environmental Zones and Strata. Alterra report 2281, Alterra, Wageningen. pdf

  • Brus D.J., Knotters M., Metzger M.J., Walvoort D.J.J. (2011) Towards a European-wide sampling design for statistical monitoring of common habitats. Alterra rapport 2213, Alterra, Wageningen. pdf

  • Metzger M.J.,Harrison P.A., Holman I.P., Rounsevel M.D.A. (2011) Integrated assessment modelling of ecosystem services, vulnerability and adaptation in Europe an Scotland. In: Young C., Besenyei L., Hooper I., Moreton-Jones K. (eds) Landscape Ecology and Ecosystem Services. Proceedings of the 18th annual meeting of the IALE UK Chapter 6-8 September Wolverhampton, UK, pp 16-20. 

  • Metzger M., Jongman R., Halada L. (2010) Set the standard. ResearchReview June 2010: 30.

  • contributing author to Adequacy of Biodiversity Observation Systems to support the CBD 2020 Targets, a report prepared by the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) . GEO BON 2011. pdf

  • contributing author to the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) Detailed implementation plan . GEO BON 2010. pdf

  • Metzger M.J., Rickebusch S., Rounsevell M.D.A. (2010) Scenario tools and landscape ecology. In: Eycott A., Scott D., Smithers R. (eds) Future Landscape Ecology. In: Eycott A., Scott D., Smithers R. (eds) Proceedings of the 17th annual meeting of the IALE UK Chapter 13-16 September Brighton, UK, pp 109-117. 

  • Mackenzie I., Dendonker N., Metzger M., Smith M., Chetcuti J. (2010) Bioenergy to biodiversity: downscaling scenarios of European land use change. In: Eycott A., Scott D., Smithers R. (eds) Future Landscape Ecology. Proceedings of the 17th annual meeting of the IALE UK Chapter 13-16 September Brighton, UK, pp 99-108. 

  • INGC. 2009. INGC Climate Change Report: Study on the impact of climate change on disaster risk in Mozambique. [Asante, K., Brito, R., Brundrit, G., Epstein, P., Fernandes, A., Marques, M.R., Mavume, A , Metzger, M. , Patt, A., Queface, A., Sanchez del Valle, R., Tadross, M., Brito, R. (eds.)]. INGC, Mozambique. 

  • Kühn I., Sykes M.T., Berry P.M., Thuiller W., Piper J.M., Nigmann U., Araújo M.B., Balletto E., Bonelli S., Cabeza M., Guisan A., Hickler T., Klotz S., Metzger M., Midgley G., Musche M., Olofsson J., Paterson J.S., Penev L., Rickebusch S., Rounsevell M.D.A., Schweiger O., Wilson E., Settele J. (2008) MACIS: Minimisation of and adaptation to climate change impacts on biodiversity. GAIA Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 17: 393-395.

  • Hermans T., Verhagen J., Vereijken P., Ewert F., Smit H., Metzger M., Naeff H., Verburg R., Woltjer G. (2008) Spatial impacts of climate and market changes on agriculture in Europe. Alterra report 1697. Alterra Wageningen. pdf

  • Metzger M.J. (2007) Maps of shifting European environments. In: De Bosatlas van Nederland. Wolters-Noordhof Atlas productions, Groningen, The Netherlands, pp 109 

  • Metzger M.J., Bunce R.G.H., Hofer G., Wrbka T. (2007) European mountain zones. In: Bunce RGH, Jongman RHG, Hojas L, Weel S (eds) 25 years Landscape ecology: Scientific principles in practice. Proceedings of the 7th IALE World Congress 8–12 July Wageningen, The Netherlands, IALE Publication series 4, pp 708-709 

  • Metzger, M.J. (2006) Main drivers of ecosystem change in Europe. Proceedings of DanBIF conference on Biodiversity at the ecosystem level – patterns & processes. Aarhus, 26-27 April 2006. pdf

  • Bunce R.G. H., Groom G.B., Jongman R.H.G., Padoa-Schippa E., Bogers M., Blust G. de, Brandt J.,Elena-Rosselló R., Hofer G., Ispikoudis I., Kovár P., Metzger M., Mücher C., Paelinckx D., Palo A., Perez-Soba M., Ramos I., Roche P., Pasta S., Peterseil J., Skånes H. & Wrbka T. (2005) Handbook for surveillance and monitoring of European habitats. Alterra, Wageningen. pdf

  • Metzger M.J. (2005) European vulnerability to global change, a spatially explicit and quantitative assessment. PhD thesis. Wageningen University. Wageningen. pdf

  • Metzger M.J., Leemans R., Schröter D., Cramer W., and the ATEAM consortium (2004) The ATEAM vulnerability mapping tool. Quantitative Approaches in Systems Analysis No. 27, CD-ROM publication, Office C.T. de Wit Graduate School for Production Ecology & Resource Conservation (PE&RC), Wageningen, The Netherlands. pdf

  • Metzger M.J., Leemans R., Schröter D. (2004) A multidisciplinary multi-scale framework for assessing vulnerabilities to global change. Proceedings of Millennium Assessment Conference: Bridging Scales and Epistemologies, Alexandria, 17 – 20 March 2004. pdf

  • Metzger M., Bunce B., Jongman R., Mateus V., Mücher S. (2003) The Environmental classification of Europe, a new tool for European landscape ecologists. Landschap 20: 50-54. 

  • Mücher C.A., Bunce R.G.H., Jongman R.H.G., Klijn J.A., Koomen A., Metzger M.J., Wascher D.M. (2003) Identification and Characterisation of Environments and Landscapes in Europe. Alterra rapport 832, Alterra, Wageningen. pdf

  • Metzger M.J. (2000) Abiotische kansrijkdom voor natuurdoeltypen; de haalbaarheid van natuurdoelen in het stroomgebied van de Beerze en de Reusel. Alterra rapport 042. Alterra, Wageningen. pdf

My research projects

Principal research activities and grants with major leadership roles.


FORLAND Restoration

2018-2020 – PI – 450k£

This Climate-KIC Forest and Landscape restoration demonstrator project FORLAND works in case-studies in Scotland and Brazil to co-develop and test ways to engage key stakeholders to achieve more sustainable land use and land management, including opportunities for forest expansion and restoration.


Landscapes as Carbon Sinks

2019-2020 – Co-I – 150k£

This Climate-KIC Deep Demonstration project connects pioneering land-based, bioeconomy and investment organisations with policy makers and citizens to design a systemic transformation of the land use sectors in Scotland.


Understanding the potential for private sector investment in natural capital

2017-2018 – PI – 17.5 k£

This short NERC-VNN post-doctoral placement with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency explored how investment by companies who rely on healthy natural capital but do manage land themselves could invest in sustainable land management in the Spey catchment in Scotland.


Understanding interdependent climate change risks using a serious game

2017-2018 – Co-I – 63k£

In this NERC-ERIIP project we piloted a climate science-informed serious game. The game, which was co-developed and played with stakeholders, reveals interdependent climate hazard risks on infrastructure and highlights the approach’s usefulness for facilitating dialogue and exploring adaptation needs.


ACES – Livelihoods and land use change in Mozambique

2013-2017 – 1869 k£ – WP lead

ACES – an interdisciplinary NERC project – worked to understand how the livelihoods of rural people in the miombo and mopane woodlands of Mozambique change as the landscape is converted from woodlands to agriculture. My post-doc developed multi-scalar scenarios and modelled change in ecosystem services and livelihoods using a BBN model.


OPERAs - Ecosystem Science for Policy & Practice

2012-2017 – 11460 kEuro – project co-lead

OPERAs was a five year European research project running from 2012-2017 that aimed to put cutting edge ecosystem science into practice. Researchers and practioners from 27 different organisations helped stakeholders to apply the ecosystem services and natural capital concept into practice.


IPCC – Contributing author AR5


I was a contributing author to the Europe chapter of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report and developed the sub-regional classification of the IPCC Europe region which was used to summarise climate impacts.


VOLANTE – Visions of Land Use Transitions in Europe

2010-2015 – 9056 kEuro – Module Lead

VOLANTE improved understanding of observed and future land use change in Europe, societal visions for desired sustainable land use and possible pathways towards these desired futures. Together, the insights provide a basis for roadmap towards sustainable land use in Europe. I coordinated the vision development process.


CLIMSAVE – Climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

2009-2013 – 3149 kEuro – case-study lead

CLIMSAVE was a European project that developed a user-friendly, interactive web-based tool that will allow stakeholders to assess climate change impacts and vulnerabilities for a range of sectors, including agriculture, forests, biodiversity, coasts, water resources and urban development. I led the Scotland case-study to design and test the tool.


EBONE – Towards a European biodiversity observation network

2008 - 2012 – 3435 kEuro – WP lead

EBONE was a European project that developed  a cost effective system of biodiversity data collection at regional, national and European levels. I led the development a statistical sampling frame and created a global environmental stratification dataset to support GEO BON.


ATEAM – Understanding vulnerability of European ecosystem services

2001-2004 – 3200kEuro – PhD student

ATEAM was one of the first integrative projects that modelled a range of ecosystem services under a consistent set of socio-economic and climate change scenarios. As a PhD student I developed a method to  map, compare and understand  global change vulnerability across Europe.


The Environmental Stratification of Europe

The Environmental Stratification of Europe (EnS) is a statistically derived land classification, providing a spatial framework for the integration and analysis of ecological and environmental data. The dataset distinguishes 84 strata that are relatively homogeneous in environmental conditions and can be aggregated into 13 environmental zones. The classification procedure is described in Global Ecology and Biogeography by Metzger et al. 2005.


The Global Environmental Stratification

The Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS) is a statistically derived global bioclimate classification, providing a novel global spatial framework for the integration and analysis of ecological and environmental data. The dataset distinguishes 125 strata that are relatively homogeneous in bioclimatic conditions and can be aggregated into 18 environmental zones. The classification procedure is described in Global Ecology and Biogeography by Metzger et al. 2013.


Future scenarios of shifts in GEnS bioclimate strata based on CIMP5 climate change scenarios for 2050

This dataset provides an alternative representation of global climate change projections based on shifts in the 125 multivariate strata of the Global Environmental Stratification (Metzger et al. 2013). The classification procedure is described in Environmental Research Letters by Soteriades et al. 2017.

Past scenarios of shifts in GEnS bioclimate strata based on PMIP3 climate change scenarios for the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum

This dataset projects the Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS) (Metzger et al., 2013) onto palaeoclimatic models of the mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum following the methodology used by Soteriades et al., (2017).

A high resolution economic density zone map of Europe

Economic density (€ km−2) forms an integrative indicator that is based on two key drivers that were identified above: economic power and human population pressure. The dataset present an economic density map and four economic density zones at a 1km2 resolution as described by Metzger et al. (2010) in the Journal of Environmental Management.

Sub-regional classification of the IPCC Europe region

This dataset provides the GIS files of the sub-regional classification of Europe used in the Europe chapter of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, based on the Environmental Stratification of Europe (Metzger et al., 2005).

Causal diagrams linking rural well-being with forest ecosystem services in Mozambique

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Scenarios of future land use change in Mozambique

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Visualisations help engage stakeholders and the public in land use change studies including normative and explorative scenario development and social surveys. These visualisations are archived and free to use under a CC4.0 license.


Five illustrated woodland expansion visions for Scotland

Five contrasting woodland expansion visions were identified by Burton et al. 2018, based on a mixed-method approach consisting of: content analysis of 53 vision documents, plans and policies relating to forestry and woodland expansion from a wide range of stakeholders involved in forestry, conservation and land use in Scotland; a stakeholder workshop; and semi-structured interviews.

Three illustrated land use visions of Europe for 2040

Three cross-sectoral vision for future sustainable land use in Europe were identified by Perez-Soba et al. 2018 based on a participatory process with 63 expert stakeholders: Local multi-functional; Regional Connected; and Best Land. This dataset provides illustrations of these visions.


STREAMLINE - a visual interview methodology

STREAMLINE  is a bespoke scientific interview format that makes consultations, workshops and focus groups more fun and accessible. Using a mix of images, storytelling and multiple-choice questions on laminated A3 canvases, participants are engaged and structured, rich, multi-layered data can be collected. The dataset contains a userguide, catalogue, and graphics files for 14 canvas templates and 500+ illustrations.

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A Decade of Weather – a serious game to understand cascading climate change impacts

This dataset provides all the material to play "A Decade of Weather", a serious game to understand multiple hazards and risk from climate change on interdependent infrastructure described in detail by Undorf et al. 2020.

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Scotland's natural treasures - an illustrated ecosystem services map

This map provides a rich picture of many ecosystem services provided by Scotland's land and sea and is accompanied by a legend that explains different categories of benefits. The map - and the illustrated ecosystem services within the map - can be used for illustration purposes and as an informative educational resource.

Europe's natural treasures - an illustrated ecosystem services map

This map provides a rich picture of many ecosystem services provided by Europe's land and sea and is accompanied by a legend that explains different categories of benefits. The map - and the illustrated ecosystem services within the map - can be used for illustration purposes and as an informative educational resource.

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